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Hyundai Steel Starts Using LNG Powered Carrier HL Oceanic

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:08 am

South Korean Hyundai Steel plans to spearhead carbon reduction by replacing its fleet of raw material carriers with eco-friendly ships. Hyundai Steel has started to operate its first eco-friendly raw material carrier HL Oceanic, which was built by Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries in Mokpo, South Jeolla Province. The Oceanic is an 180,000-ton LNG-powered ship. The carrier left the shipyard for Australia. It will transport 2 million tonnes of iron ore and coal annually. In March next year, the HL Sunny, the twin ship of the Oceanic, will be delivered.

Hyundai Steel will replace the remaining raw material carriers with eco-friendly ships. Starting from March 2022, 31 percent of the steelmaker’s raw material carriers will be loaded with desulfurization devices, and 15 percent will be replaced with LNG-powered ships.

The International Maritime Organization is tightening environmental regulations to reduce carbon dioxide and sulfur oxide emissions from ships. As a result, LNG-powered ships have been on the rise. Their number increased from 72 in 2014 to 103 in 2016, 145 in 2018 and 220 in 2021. For now, LNG is the most practical eco-friendly fuel. LNG can reduce emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide by 99 percent, 90 percent, and 30 percent, respectively, compared to conventional high-sulfur vessel oil. It can boost fuel efficiency by more than 30 percent.
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Mechel BMK Expands Range of Rectangular Wire for Springs

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:10 am

Russian miner & steel maker Mechel Group’s Beloretsk Metallurgical Plant has developed and mastered a new size of rectangular wire and three standard sizes of crimped tape for the production of various springs. Experienced lots of high-margin metal ware have already been sent to consumers. At the request of the Minsk Automobile Plant, BMK produced a tape measuring 0.6x5.0 mm in accordance with GOST 21997-76. It is used to make various springs in the automotive industry.

For the Izhevsk State Technical University named after M.T. Kalashnikov, a pilot batch of high-strength tape 0.8x1.3 mm in size according to GOST 21997-76 was produced. These products are used for the production of springs for small arms.

For a domestic company for the production of springs and wire products, BMK made tape measuring 0.5x5.0 millimeters in accordance with GOST 10234-77. This novelty is used to make various springs that are used in many industries.

BMK also produced a high-strength rectangular wire measuring 1.2x1.5 mm according to TU 14-4-128-74. At the request of the consumer, the technology of its manufacture was changed, as a result of the drag, it acquired increased strength and springiness. It is used in mechanical engineering.
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Turkish Ergin Makine Certified for Producing GreenWeights

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:12 am

Istanbul Turkey based special steel producer Ergin Makine, with support from European Union & EBRD, has gained ISO accreditation as an environmentally friendly business. Through the EBRD’s Advice for Small Business programme, Ergin Makine worked with a sustainability consultant to quantify the environmental impacts of GreenWeight and compare its carbon footprint with equivalent products on the market. At the end of the project, the company received appropriate certifications for GreenWeight’s Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Products Declaration, showing the environmental benefits of GreenWeight over comparable counterweights in the market. As a result, Ergin Makine can now proudly call itself a green business and share the environmental and sustainability benefits of its GreenWeight technology with a wider audience.

Aptly named GreenWeight, Ergin Makine’s patented counterweight contributes to the environment on multiple levels. It is manufactured from recycled scrap metal collected from local sources, and it is energy efficient: the production process does not use any heat treatment and requires minimal energy use, as opposed to regular counterweights used in the industry. This means that the CO2 emissions associated with the production of the patented technology are 32 times lower than in traditional production methods. Moreover, the machinery used in production could also be considered green: the company built it in house, avoiding the carbon emissions associated with transporting equipment to its production facilities from abroad.

With more than 50 years experience in engineering activities, Ergin Makine is known for its steel counterweight products, which are most commonly used in lift mechanisms. Yet rising prices for steel, demand for cheaper alternatives from customers, and an increased awareness of climate change drove the company to pursue greener solutions.
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US Steel Production Capacity Utilization Slips to 83% in Week 47

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:15 am

AISI announced that in the week ending on November 27, 2021, US’s domestic raw steel production was 1,837,000 net tons while the capability utilization rate was 83.2 percent. Production was 1,621,000 net tons in the week ending November 27, 2020 while the capability utilization then was 73.3 percent. The current week production represents a 13.3 percent increase from the same period in the previous year. Production for the week ending November 27, 2021 is down 1.3 percent from the previous week ending November 20, 2021 when production was 1,861,000 net tons and the rate of capability utilization was 84.3 percent.

Adjusted year-to-date production through November 27, 2021 was 86,274,000 net tons, at a capability utilization rate of 81.6 percent. That is up 19.7 percent from the 72,053,000 net tons during the same period last year, when the capability utilization rate was 67.7 percent.

Broken down by districts, here’s production for the week ending November 27, 2021 in thousands of net tons

North East: 170 (Week 46 -175)

Great Lakes: 625 (Week 46 -617)

Midwest: 199 (Week 46 -205)

Southern: 768 (Week 46 -787)

Western: 75 (Week 46 -77)

Total 1837 (Week 46 - 1861)
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NLMK Starts Modernization of Billet Heating Furnace at Lipetsk

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:18 am

Russian steel maker Novolipetsk Metallurgical Plant has begun reconstruction of a furnace for heating steel billets before rolling at mill 2000. The modernization of the unit will increase the production of hot-rolled steel in Lipetsk by 430,000 tonnes per year or 7%, improve product quality, halve energy consumption, and to reduce greenhouse gas CO2 emissions by 53,000 tonnes.

The reconstruction will be carried out in the conditions of the existing production without stopping the mill. The new unit will be equipped with an automated control system based on a learning mathematical model. It will independently adjust the temperature regime depending on the rolling of specific steel grades. After the reconstruction, the furnace capacity will increase by 23% to 320 tonnes per hour (2.25 million tonnes per year).

Currently, five units are in operation at the 2000 mill kiln section, four of them have been modernized earlier. With the commissioning of the fifth reconstructed furnace, the entire volume of hot rolling metal will be processed on highly efficient, resource-saving new generation units. It is planned to complete the reconstruction and commission the unit in the second quarter of 2023. Investments in the project will amount to over 5 billion rubles.
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Metinvest Trametal Launches New Plasma Cutting Line in Italy

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:24 am

Ukrainian steel maker Metinvest announced that its Italian plate re roller Metinvest Trametal is launching a new plasma cutting line. Also known as a trimmer edge, the installation of a Master Plasma Bevel LineaTech Nova 55, a EUR 10 million investment, is a central project in Metinvest Trametal’s CAPEX programme. It allows for a nearly four-fold increase in the production capacity of trimmed plates, from 65,000 tonnes per year to up to 235,000 tonnes per year. To accommodate the new line, Metinvest Trametal constructed a new building adjacent to the plant with a total area of 6,800 square metres. The line was formally inaugurated on 26 November at a ceremony at the plant in San Giorgio di Nogaro in Northeastern Italy.

It was financed under a facility with Italy’s Cassa Depositi e Prestiti SpA agreed in June 2020 and guaranteed by SACE SpA, the state-owned export credit agency, under the Garanzia Italia initiative.

Metinvest acquired Metinvest Trametal in 2008. Its quarto reversing rolling mill has an annual production capacity of 600 thousand tonnes of high-quality, hot-rolled plates for use in shipbuilding, pipe manufacturing and for other industrial purposes.
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EC Approves Aperam’s Acquisition of Recycler ELG

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:28 am

Global leader in stainless and alloys recycling Aperam announced that the pending acquisition of ELG has been approved by the European Commission and the completion of the acquisition is expected in Q4 of 2021. Aperam had announced in May 2021 a Share Purchase Agreement with Franz Haniel & Cie Gmbh to acquire ELG for an Enterprise Value of EUR 357 million. ELG is a global leader in collecting, trading, processing and recycling of stainless steel scrap and high performance alloys, delivering 1.3 million tonnes of materials annually in 52 locations in 18 countries.

Once regulatory approvals are complete, Aperam intends to operate ELG as a fully separate and independent company. ELG will continue to serve all of its customers in their best interests. The acquisition of ELG will put Aperam at the core of the circular economy and enable capturing value in the global recycling industry.

Aperam is a global player in stainless, electrical and specialty steel, with customers in over 40 countries. The business is organised in three primary operating segments: Stainless & Electrical SteeL Services & Solutions and Alloys & Specialties. Aperam has a flat Stainless and Electrical steel capacity of 2.5 million tonnes in Brazil and Europe and is a leader in high value specialty products. In addition to its industrial network, spread over six production facilities in Brazil. Belgium and France.
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Metalloinvest Appoints Mr Chernov as Managing Director of OEMK

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:31 am

Russian steel maker Metalloinvest announced that Mr Kirill Chernov is appointed Managing Director of Alexey Ugarov OEMK. He previously held the position of Chief Engineer at the enterprise. The new Managing Director and the enterprise’s team will work to maintain and strengthen OEMK’s leading industry position and achieve a number of ambitious targets, in particular around occupational health and safety, efficiency improvement and cost reduction, and human resources development.

Mr Chernov's career is closely tied to OEMK. He joined the enterprise in 2003 as a steel casting operator. He subsequently worked as a foreman and senior foreman, shift supervisor, and deputy shop manager for production. Since March 2019, he has been Chief Engineer of the enterprise.

Alexey Ugarov OEMK plant is using direct reduction technology. The enterprise carries out direct reduction of iron and smelting in electric furnaces, which enable steel production to be free from harmful impurities and residual elements while minimising environmental impact. In 2020, OEMK produced 3.5 million tonnes of steel, 4.1 million tonnes of oxidised pellets and 3.2 million tonnes of metallised pellets. The main customers for OEMK’s steel products are companies in the automotive, mechanical engineering, pipe, metal goods and bearing industries. OEMK supplies rolled steel to partners in Russia, Europe, Asia and other regions.
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Canada Infrastructure Bank to Fund EAF Project of Algoma Steel

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:38 am

The Canada Infrastructure Bank and Algoma Steel Inc have entered into a definitive agreement with respect to the CIB’s previously announced commitment to finance the transformational upgrade of Algoma’s steelmaking processes at its facility in Sault Ste Marie in Ontario. Under the terms of the agreement, the Canada Infrastructure Bank will provide up to CAD 220 million in financing towards the approximately CAD 700 million transformation to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The Canada Infrastructure Bank financing will enable Algoma to purchase state-of-the-art equipment to facilitate the EAF transformation, which is expected to cut greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 70%, representing more than 3 million tonnes per year by 2030.

On November 10, 2021, Algoma’s Board of Directors authorized the construction of two new electric arc furnaces to replace Algoma’s existing basic oxygen steelmaking operations.

Algoma employs approximately 2,600 Canadians and is Canada’s only fully integrated producer of steel plates, making it a leader in the production of hot and cold rolled steel sheet and plate.
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Nippon Steel Confirms Talks to Acquire Steel Millin Southeast Asia

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:41 am

Reuters reported that Japan's biggest steelmaker Nippon Steel Corp is in talks to buy a steel mill in Southeast Asia to step up its overseas expansion. Nippon Steel Executive Vice President Mr Takahiro Mori told Reuters "The discussions are under way to secure iron sources in ASEAN. One hundred million is a symbolic figure for us to have a certain presence and influence as global steel major.”

He declined to comment on details, but said the deal could involve an electric furnace.

Nippon Steel had said in March that it may consider acquiring or investing in integrated steel mills in China and ASEAN countries to boost its global capacity of crude steel output to 100 million tonnes. As of March, Nippon Steel's global output capacity stood at 70 million tonnes.
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SSAB Alabama to Supply Steel Plates to Austal USA for T-ATS Ships

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:42 am

Following Austal USA’s award from the US Navy to build steel-hulled Towing, Salvage, and Rescue ships T-ATS, Austal USA has contracted with Alabama based steel provider SSAB to provide steel for the new Navy ships. Austal will source various strength and sized steel plates from SSAB capable of being cut, shaped, welded, and fitted resulting in the construction of valuable support ships and potential combat ships for US military.

Austal USA broke ground on a new steel manufacturing line in March 2020 to meet the steel-ship demand signal of the US government. The new line will be operational in April with Austal poised to start construction on the recently award US Navy T-ATS program. Austal’s state-of-the-art steel production line will support future steel programs for the US Navy and US Coast Guard.
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Steel Demand in India in 2020-21 Shrinks by 5% YoY

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:43 am

India’s Union Steel Minister Mr Ram Chandra Prasad Singh while replying to a question in the Rajya Sabha informed that the demand for steel in 2020-21 fell by 5% YoY to 94.9 million tonnes from 100.2 million tonnes in 2019-20.

Building & Construction -41.0 million tonnes, down 2.4 million tonnes or 6%

Infrastructure - 23.8 million tonnes, down 1.3 million tonnes or 5%

Automobile - 8.4 million tonnes, down 0.4 million tonnes or 5%

Engineering & Packaging - 20.9 million tonnes, down 1.1 million tonnes or 5%

Defence - 0.8 million tonnes, down 0.1 million tonnes or 11%

However, the Steel Minister informed that the government is taking various measures to boost the demand in steel consuming industries. He said “Government has laid special emphasis on infrastructure development through schemes like National Infrastructure Pipeline, Housing for All, Jal Jeevan Mission, Bharatmala Project, Sagarmala Project, Construction of Dedicated Freight Corridor and UDAN initiative etc.”

He added “The steel ministry has also been engaging stakeholders from various sectors such as housing and construction, infrastructure, urban development, railways, defence, oil & gas, rural development and food processing etc. with a view to promoting usage of steel and to boost the demand.”

The data reveals that Building, Construction & Infrastructure sector accounts for almost 70% of Indian steel consumption and automobile less than 10%

Building, Construction & Infrastructure - 68%

Automobile - 9%

Engineering & Packaging - 22%

Defence - 1%

India’s Crude Steel Production in million tonnes

2016-17 - 97.94 million tonnes

2017-18 - 103.13 million tonnes, up 5% YoY

2018-19 - 110.92 million tonnes, up 8% YoY

2019-20 - 109.14 million tonnes, down 2% YoY

2020-21 -103.54 million tonnes, down 5% YoY

2021-22 (upto October, 21) - 66.805

Source: Joint Plant Committee
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OMK to Supply Three Unique Waste Heat Boilers for RUSAL

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:30 am

By the end of 2021, the United Metallurgical Company will complete the supply of two waste heat boilers for the Taishet Anode Factory, which is being built by RUSAL in the Irkutsk Region. The boilers are manufactured according to a unique project developed in the engineering center of the Belgorod plant OMK.

In total, from 2019 to the end of 2021, the OMK Belgorod plant will supply more than 1,500 tons of equipment for the construction of two boilers. With their help, the Taishet Anode Factory is planning to utilize the gases coming out of the calcining furnaces of the anode production. The gases will enter the waste heat boilers, and then, after passing through spark arrestors and European-made bag filters, are already purified and released into the atmosphere. Due to this technology, it will be possible to minimize the harmful effect on the environment, as well as efficiently use gases to produce heat and electricity for the needs of the factory.

Each of the two boilers produces over 90 tons of superheated steam per hour. The pressure in the boilers is 3.9 MPa, the steam temperature is 440 degrees.
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Imported Thermal Coal Prices to Remain Elevated - India Ratings

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
30 Nov, 2021, 5:30 am

According to India Ratings and Research, imported coal prices in India could sustain at the current high levels on the back of a raft of reasons such as strong electricity demand due to strong industrial activity, winter demand, supply concerns in key exporting countries, supply chain constraints and a continued strong steel sector demand. Ind-Ra said “Ind-Ra believes the coal import prices could sustain at the current high levels due to limited downside risks with no sharp corrections likely over the current quarter. The prices shall be supported by a strong power demand, driven by robust industrial activities, winter demand, supply concerns in key exporting countries, supply chain constraints and a continued strong steel sector demand ex-China as against China curtailing steel production over 2H21.”

Ind-Ra added “However, if the covid-19 infections resurge in China or there is a slowdown in Chinese real estate demand along with metal production cuts, the coal consumption may slow down, leading to higher availability of coal and thus, a softening of the prices.”

This comes against the backdrop of fuel stocks at coal-fuelled power projects building up after depleting to 7.23 million tonnes on 8 October. India’s power plants burn around 1.85-1.87 million tonnes of coal every day to generate electricity. The government’s plan is to build a total coal fuel stock of 16 million tonnes by end November.
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US shredded scrap remains firm before December trading
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With December trading approaching, the US scrap market remains firm, despite the pressure seen in major export destinations. Market participants foresee no downward trend, particularly for shredded scrap prices. The expected rise in shredded prices, however, is seen varying depending on region.

A US scrap supplier tells Kallanish: “A downward trend does not seem likely for shredded scrap but I doubt there’ll be an increase above $10/gross ton. Some still expect a $40/gt increase but I don’t think it will materialise.”

December trading is expected to begin early next week.

On the West Coast, the number of US-origin scrap offers remained limited last week due to the Thanksgiving holiday at the weekend. As a result, US suppliers have managed to obtain higher prices compared to the previous week.

On the East Coast, Turkish mills have managed to effect a decrease in scrap prices, even from the US. A long steel mill has bought a cargo comprising 25,000 tonnes of HMS 1&2 95:5 and 15,000t of bonus grade at $508/tonne cfr Turkey. Although US suppliers have tried to keep their prices at above $500/t cfr, they have failed to do so due to weak demand in finished steel markets.

Turkish mills achieved even lower prices at $488-490/t cfr for premium HMS 1&2 80:20 from the Baltic towards the end of last week, due to the increase in offer volumes.

Burcak Alpman Turkey
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Fabrimetal Ghana Launches Section Mill

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
01 Dec, 2021, 5:06 am

Ghana Web reported that Fabrimetal Ghana Ltd inaugurated a newly installed state-of-the-art Section Mill to manufacture Angles, Flat bars, Square bars, and Channels on 24 November. These lines of merchant bars add to the existing re-bars, a new range of steel bars on the Ghanaian market. Fabrimetal Ghana Ltd has started with an initial investment of USD 30 million and an additional USD 10 million for the newly installed section mill This brings the local investment to a tune of USD 40 million.

Fabrimetal Ghana Managing Director Mr Rohit Raj disclosed that “The company started with a melting furnace and a rolling mill. It subsequently increased its capacity to meet the commercial demands of the steel industry while maintaining the same international quality of products. Ghana becomes an excellent hub for the other neighboring countries in West Africa so it places Ghana in a very good spot to manufacture steel products for export purposes.”
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Tata Steel Wins Five Quality Awards for Value Engineering

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
01 Dec, 2021, 5:09 am

Tata Steel has won five prestigious awards for systematic application of Value Engineering during the 37th INVEST International Virtual Conference held on November 20-21. Indian Value Engineering Society has conferred Tata Steel the prestigious “Handa Golden Key Award” for excellence in systematic application of Value Engineering at Engineering & Projects. The company has been awarded the “Mohta Award” for best Value Engineering case study in India for improvement in plant layout of Briquette Plant at Tata Steel Kalinganagar and bagged two “Commendation Awards” for value study of optimization of Programmable Logic Controllers at Cold Rolling Mill at Jamshedpur and using ‘Risk’ as a value element and expected value as a method for value measurement to build resilience in projects.

Another award, Fellowship of INVEST, FINVEST, has been awarded to Surya Prakash Prabhaker based on his technical competency, outstanding accomplishment and distinct contribution in promoting Value Management in India.
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CAP Acero Delivers 19.5 KT Steel for Chacao Channel Bridge

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
01 Dec, 2021, 5:12 am

CAP Acero has delivered 19,500 tonnes of steel for construction of the bridge over the Chacao canal. It is mostly a product specially developed for this project that meets a series of quality and safety requirements, given that it is concrete reinforcement bars. CAP Acero Construction Business Manager Mr Luis Alberto Castro said "84% of what is shipped today corresponds to high-strength steels manufactured under international standards. It is exclusively ASTM A706 grade 80 qualities concrete reinforcement bars. These steels have the particularity, and the advantage, of allowing savings more than 30% of steel needs, apart from other savings, such as construction time, waste and carbon footprint.”

Although construction is due to end in 2025, product shipments will end sooner.

The Chacao Channel bridge is a planned road connection to link the Island of Chiloé with mainland Chile by crossing the Chacao Channel. At present, the only way to reach Chiloé is by a 25 to 45-minute ferry trip. With the bridge, the time would be reduced to less than three minutes.

The project consists of a 2,6km long double suspension bridge with two main spans of 1050m and 1180m, an orthotropic box girder deck, four lanes, one central and two exterior shoulders and a central (A-shape) tower on Roca Remolinos, a point where the rock reaches the surface offering a point of support for the central pillar.
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Acciaierie d’Italia Awards Flue Gas Contract to Primetals & Yara

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
01 Dec, 2021, 5:15 am

A consortium consisting of Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH and YARA Environmental Technologies GmbH, both based in Austria, has been awarded by Acciaierie d’Italia a contract for a new flue-gas treating systems for the three 160 MW boilers at its power plant No 2 in Taranto in Italy. Within this consortium, Yara will deliver the new economizer and selective catalytic reduction DeNOx elements and Primetals Technologies will cover the DeSOx- and dedusting part. The startup of the first FGT unit is scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2022 with the other two units following in short succession.

The high temperature of the flue gas coming from the boilers will be utilized for the SCR DeNOx process which requires temperatures of more than 300 degre Celsius. The SCR catalyst will be integrated into the boiler economizer. Due to its condition, the existing, original economizer will be replaced by a new state-of-the-art version. SOX in the flue gas will be controlled by applying Primetals Technologies’ proprietary Meros technology. Based on the favorable process conditions and the limited available space, sodium bicarbonate (SBC) will be used as DeSOx agent which ensures high DeSOx efficiency but does not require any water injection as it is a completely dry technology. This technology has been invented by Primetals Technologies and has already been successfully applied in numerous plants.

The FGT systems will also be designed to cover all the changing load- and flue gas conditions of power plant No 2. As the boilers are fired with the typical by-product gases from steel mill operation (coke oven-, blast furnace- and converter gas) the quantity and mix of those gases may vary depending on their availability and the FGT system will cover all those different load cases accordingly while still maintaining the required environmental performance.

Built in the early 1970s, power plant CET 2 is a conventional thermo-electric power plant which will now undergo a major environmental upgrade through the installation of state-of-the-art flue gas treatment technologies, including SCR DeNOx system (integrated in a new economizer) for reduction of NOx emissions by 80%, Meros DeSOx technology for reduction of SOx emissions to less than 130 mg per cubic meter and high-end fabric filters for removal of fine dust emission to less than 2 mg per cubic meter.
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Design Unveiled for Connected Steel Autonomous Vehicle

Strategic Research Institute
Published on :
01 Dec, 2021, 5:19 am

World Steel Association’s automotive group WorldAutoSteel and its engineering partner Ricardo have unveiled the exterior styling vision for their fully autonomous ride-hailing, ride-sharing vehicle designed to showcase the benefits of using steel for global mobility-as-a-service. The Steel E-Motive vehicle design has been optimised to include technologies that are deployable by 2030 and beyond and meet requirements for inner-city driving needs. The design concept comprises both a compact, four-passenger vehicle, and a version with space for more passengers and luggage for out-of-town journeys. Designed by Maurizio Tancredi, Chief Style and Industrial Designer at Ricardo, Steel E-Motive’s exterior styling is created around generative design thinking and is inspired by contemporary architecture in global cities, enabling the vehicle to fit harmoniously into the urban landscape.

Using Advanced High-Strength Steel for the design delivers aesthetic, safety, comfort and accessibility benefits. The steel is applied in a pattern that is part of the external visual design rather than being hidden behind outer panels, and the glazing on all sides of the vehicle, including the roof, offers passengers great views of the cityscape. The steel will enable the engineering team to meet mobility-as-a-service operational, safety and environment requirements: for example, its strength and formability supports a unique low-height coverless and integrated battery case, and flat-floor interior, which also aids better accessibility.

A unique rocker design offers superior crush force and protection not only to the occupant but the high voltage battery internals. Steel also delivers cost, weight and sustainability benefits over a conventional battery pack using alternative materials, while meeting all current and future anticipated safety standards and legislation. Accessibility is also at the core of the vehicle design.

The requirement for low step-in height has driven the primary structure of the vehicle and is enabled by the novel battery case solution. A very wide door opening provides ample access for people and goods, while the unique door structure provides reduced outswing to the roadside.

The Steel E-Motive vehicle design also features battery electric propulsion, Level 5 autonomy and four-wheel steering for maximum functionality and manoeuvrability. The design and engineering reflect likely use in a mixed environment where both manual and autonomous vehicles are operating. Vehicle specifications are geared to high-volume manufacture with vehicle producers, fleet operators and ride-hailing users in mind.
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