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Salzgitter AG to Supply Green Steel to Mercedes-Benz AG

German steel maker Salzgitter AG subsidiary Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH will supply green flat steel products with a CO2 footprint reduced by more than 66% to four German plants of Mercedes-Benz AG as early as 2021. The low CO2 steel grades are produced in the Peine electric steelworks in combination with the rolling mills and galvanizing plants in Salzgitter. Mercedes-Benz AG is the first automobile manufacturer to be supplied by Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH with CO2 reduced steel as cold thin sheet and hot-dip galvanized sheet for series production. This results in structural and body parts for various car models, among other things.

Salzgitter AG CEO Mr Gunnar Groebler said “The expansion of our product portfolio to include green flat steel via the new low CO2 production route is an important component of our decarbonization strategy that we are already implementing today. In addition, we will follow the path we have taken towards low CO2 steel production with SALCOS steelmaking consistently. This fundamental transformation enables us to completely replace conventional steel production in defined steps with hydrogen-based processes. In this way, we will achieve a CO2 reduction of around 95% in the target image and thus avoid around 1% of today's German emissions. ”

As the first European steel manufacturer, Salzgitter AG has conformity statements based on the VERIsteel procedure of TÜV SÜD for its new ones get green steel products. The procedure enables the detection of the product-specific CO2 emissions in steel production and accompanies the process of decarbonization. The conformity statements confirm that when the production route is changed from the conventional blast furnace route to the electric steel route, CO2 savings of between 66% and 75% are achieved, depending on the end product delivered.

Together with its steel suppliers, Mercedes-Benz is retooling its supply chain to focus on the prevention and reduction of CO2 emissions rather than compensation. Mercedes-Benz AG took an equity stake in Swedish start-up H2 Green Steel in May 2021 as a way to introduce CO2 frees steel into series production.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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Fire Halts Hot Rolling Mill of NLMK La Louviere in Belgium

Russian steel maker NLMK’s unit NLMK Belgium Holdings joint venture with Belgian SOGEPA NLMK La Louviere hot rolling shop has been shut down for repairs after a fire near the quarto equipment last weekend. An official said “On Saturday, July 17, a fire occurred in the hot rolling shop of NLMK La Louviere, which was extinguished within 30 minutes. No one was injured in the incident. The equipment installed during the modernization of the mill was not affected. The repair of the mill will take about one week. We have declared force majeure.”

NLMK La Louviere produces hot- and cold-rolled coils for the automotive, construction, and engineering industries.

At the end of 2019, NLMK La Louviere announced the modernization of its hot rolling mill worth EUR 150 million as part of NLMK Group's Strategy 2022. As a result of the modernization, the plant will increase the annual production of rolled products by a third, from the current 1.7 million tonnes to 2.2 million tonnes by 2022, as well as the market share of niche hot-rolled steel grades in the EU countries. The first phase of the project, which ended in 2021, started in early 2020.

NLMK Belgium Holdings includes production and service facilities of the NLMK Europe Flat Products Division’s NLMK La Louviere, NLMK Strasbourg, NLMK Manage Steel Center and two production assets of the NLMK Europe Plates Division NLMK Clabecq and NLMK Verona.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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BSE Launches Steel Billet Futures Contract in India

India’s leading stock exchange Bombay Stock Exchange has announced the launch of trading in delivery-based futures contract in carbon steel billets, designed jointly with Steel Users Federation of India. JSW Group CMD Mr Sajjan Jindal, who launched BSE's steel billets futures contract said unlike other commodities, said that “India's steel industry lacks a transparent benchmark for setting prices or a way to offset the risk of price movement and introduction of futures in steel billets on BSE, the physical steel supply chain would be in a better position to mitigate price risks and volatility.”

Size – 100x100 MM, also 120,130, 150 MM, Length 6-12 meters

Specifications - BIS 2830:2012 Standard for Carbon Steel Grade A C15, C18 or C20 and BIS 2831:2012 C8, C15 or C22 for rerolling into structural purpose

Marking -Each piece to be marked with heat number individually and accompanied with mill test certificate

Delivery Centre(s) – Raipur, up to the radius of 50 Km from the municipal limits

Steel Billet Futures Contract Trading Details

Symbol – SUFIBLT

Contract Start Day - 1 day of contract launch month. If 1 is a holiday, then the following working day

Last Trading Day - Last working of the month. If last working day of the month is holiday, then preceding working day

Trading Period - Monday through Friday

Trading Session - Monday to Friday: 09:00 AM to 11:30/11:55 PM

Trading Unit - 10 MT

Quotation/Base Value - Rs per MT

Delivery unit - 10 MT

Quantity variation- +/- 5%

Maximum Order Size (Qty) - 500 MT

Tick Size (Minimum Price Movement) - Rs 10.00

Price Quote Ex – Raipur, exclusive of GST and other levies, but inclusive of basic customs duty and other related duties in case of imports

Daily Price Limit- DPL for Steel shall have two slabs i.e. Initial slab of 6% and 1st Enhanced slab of 3%. Once the trade hits the initial slab of 6%; the DPL shall be relaxed further by ‘1st Enhanced Slab’ (i.e. 3%) after a cooling off period of 15 minutes. During cooling off periods trading shall continue to be permitted within the previous slab of DPL. There shall not be further relaxation of DPL during that day.

Margins - In case of additional volatility, an additional margin (on both buy & sell ide) and / or special margin (on either buy or sell side) at such percentage, as deemed fit; will be imposed in respect of all outstanding positions.

Maximum Allowable Open Position - For individual client 120,000 MT for all Steel Billets contracts combined together or 5% of the market wide open position whichever is higher, for all Steel Billets contracts combined together. For a member collectively for all clients: 6,00,000 MT or 20% of the market wide open position whichever is higher, for all Steel Billets contracts combined together.

Delivery Period Margin - Delivery period margins shall be higher of 3% + 5 day 99% VaR of spot price volatility Or 20%

Contract Launch Months & Contract Expiry Months

July 2021, August 2021

July 2021, September 2021

July 2021, October 2021

July 2021, November 2021

August 2021, December 2021

September 2021, January 2022

October 2021, February 2022

November 2021, March 2022

December 2021, April 2022

January 2022, May 2022

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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Danieli’s Tandem CR Mill Achieves Productivity Yildiz Demir Çelik

Yildiz cold-mill complex in Kocaeli in Turkey is producing 1.5 million tonnes per year high quality, cold rolled, tempered and coated strip in coils. The close cooperation between Danieli and Yildiz project teams resulted in a remarkable tandem mill start-up, delivering zero waste from day one, followed by a daily increase in strip throughput and quality. After two years of operation, sustained performance and productivity are confirmed. The heart of the plant is the Turboflo pickling line coupled with a five-stand, 6-hi Optimized Shaped Roll Technology tandem cold-mill, which is followed by a continuous galvanizing line with vertical furnace arrangement, a stand-alone temper mill as well as a batch annealing facility.

Pickling process efficiency is achieved by Danieli-patented Turboflo technology, which includes advanced hydraulic sealing with minimal pump pressure, special tank channel design, high turbulence on both strip surfaces, adjustable turbulence level for better process control, strip tension level optimization along the line, and no need for catenary control. It has the ability to process light-gauge strips at up-to 450 meters per minute speeds, meaning a 15 second dwell time for light-gauge, low-carbon steel hot band. The Turboflo line achieves a 5 to 10% decrease in acid and energy consumption compared to pump-generated turbulence, and a 10-15% production increase compared to non-turbulent bath.

Rolling mill flatness performance is ensured by OSRT with specially contoured intermediate roll barrel in combination with an axial intermediate roll-shifting device. This allows maximum influence on the roll bite by creating a roll crown, while reducing the necessary diameter differences on the intermediate rolls to increase roll lifetime. Aided by online flatness control based on an exit-side shapemeter roll, more than 97% of all strip flatness deviations in steady- and transient-state rolling condition were either equal or below 6 I-units.

The OSRT concept showed excellent stability and performance during thin-gauge material production: ultra-low HAGC hysteresis with a 45% faster response time, and low-friction bending blocks, ensure precise strip thickness control, with thickness tolerances exceeding guarantee values. Yield savings around the weld seam are ensured by continuous rolling; L1 and L2 controls reduce the out-of-gauge length before and after the seam.

Economical high-speed, hot-dip, thin-coating galvanizing is achieved by Danieli Kohler X-Jet wiping system. It allows extremely accurate final zinc coating-thickness control, down to 35 g/m2 per side at 170 mpm. An annual 5% OpEx savings is ensured thanks to excellent coating uniformity along the strip. An L1-integrated Q-Robot Zinc skims the zinc bath surface.

Thanks to all of these features and more, plant availability for Yildiz cold-mill complex is close to 99.9 %.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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EU Funding Agency Visits GrInHy2.0 Electrolyser at Salzgitter

The GrInHy2.0 high-temperature electrolyser is the largest of its kind in the world. At the end of 2020, it was successfully tested in an industrial environment for the first time. Bart Biebuyck, Executive Director of the EU funding agency “Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking”, visited Salzgitter on July 14, 2021 to find out more about the GrInHy2.0 electrolyser and the current project status. GrInHy2.0 started in 2019 as a follow-up project to the successfully completed GrInHy project, Green Industrial Hydrogen. With green hydrogen, produced by steam from waste heat sources and renewable electricity using high-temperature electrolysis, steel can be produced without CO 2 in the long term Emissions are produced. The project is part of the future decarbonisation of the steel industry. Members of the consortium are the project partners Salzgitter Flachstahl, Salzgitter Mannesmann Research, Sunfire, Paul Wurth, Tenova and the French research institute CEA.

The Dresden electrolysis company Sunfire developed and produced the high-temperature electrolyser. Based on the innovative solid oxide cell technology, the system uses waste heat that is already available from industry and runs at a temperature of 850 degree C. This makes the electrolyser considerably more efficient than other technologies available on the market - it requires significantly less electricity to produce one kilogram of green hydrogen.

The GrInHy2.0 electrolyser is part of the SALCOS transformation project to CO 2- poor steel manufacturing. A large part of the infrastructure required for the installation of the electrolysis system was already in place, from the waste heat to the hydrogen pipeline and the green electricity supply. In December 2020, the electrolyser successfully produced hydrogen for the first time, a major milestone in the project. Since then, the green hydrogen has been fed directly into the hydrogen gas network of the steelworks. As of now, 15 tons of green hydrogen have already been used in the annealing processes and galvanizing plants of SZFG for steel refinement.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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EPC Players Highly Susceptible to Steel Price Swings in India

India Ratings and Research believes that engineering procurement & construction companies have been facing doldrums majorly on account of a rise in steel and cement prices. The EPC sector has been facing the brunt of increase in domestic steel prices since FY21. Typically, the order book visibility of the EPC sector ranges between 2.5x-3x of revenues. EPC players usually try to build in increases in raw material prices in their bids by estimating fluctuations based on past trends which make them susceptible to any sharp price surges. The recent surge in steel prices is a cause for greater concern for players who have a substantial quantum of unexecuted order book, awarded prior to FY21.

Ind-Ra has considered rebar at Delhi NCR and said that the average domestic steel prices surged 26% YoY in FY21 and 23.5% in 1QFY21. The prices reached record levels of INR 56,000 per tonne in May 2021 and dipped to INR 52,000 per tonne in June 2021.

Based on the discussions with some of the rated issuers, Ind-Ra was informed that the concerns have been tabled before the Ministry of Road Transport and the Ministry of Steel to consider the inclusion of cost escalation clauses for even the back-dated projects awarded prior to FY21. Furthermore, few companies have started working on fixed-price annual contracts with large domestic steel manufacturers to manage the uncertainties better. Some other players have started being more agile with their commodity hedging strategies.

Ind-Ra believes that EPC players with a higher quantum of unexecuted order book prior to FY21 and low ratings remain susceptible to steel price fluctuations and may see significant erosion in their margin profiles which could weaken their credit profiles in short to medium term.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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MMK Continues Construction of Coke Oven Battery No 12

Russian steel maker Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works continues the implementation of the largest investment project for the construction of the coke oven battery complex No 12. The capacity of coke oven battery No 12 is 2.5 million tonnes of dry coke per year. The cost of the project will be about 67 billion rubles. The general designer of the construction of the complex was the branch of Sinostil Equipment and Engineering Co., Ltd. in the city of Magnitogorsk. The developer of the design documentation is MAGNITOGORSK GIPROMEZ JSC.

The design documentation, which has already received a positive opinion from the Glavgosexpertiza of Russia, provides for the construction of a complex of coke oven battery No. 12 in two stages. At the first, it is planned to build two blocks of a coke oven battery with two dry coke quenching units, one desulfurization and denitration unit. Also, at the first stage, a coal preparation shop, a liquid ammonia warehouse, coke sorting facilities, an air compressor station, a fire pumping station and engineering facilities for coke oven battery No. 12 will be built. The capacity of the first stage of the complex under conditions of autonomous operation will amount to 1.25 million tons of coke per year. At the second stage, two more blocks of the coke oven battery with technological units will be built. The increase in production during the commissioning of the second stage will amount to 1.25 million tons of coke per year.

Thanks to the launch of coke oven battery No. 12, five obsolete batteries will be phased out of operation, and the consumption of coal concentrate and natural gas will also decrease. In addition, the modernization of production will reduce the gross emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere by 11.35 thousand tons per year and ensure waste-free production through the introduction of a dry coke quenching unit. The use of dry quenching technology will make it possible to utilize the heat of coke, to obtain steam for technological needs and to generate electricity, creating an additional capacity of 40 MW for electricity. Separately, it is worth noting the impact of the new facility on reducing the carbon footprint. Reducing emissions of CO 2 will be more than 1.1 million tons, and reduced carbon footprint by 0.21 tons of CO 2(-21%) per ton of coke, which will further bring MMK closer to achieving its goals in the field of decarbonization.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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Russian TPE to Conduct Audit to Restart Ajaokuta Steel in Nigeria

Premium Times Nigeria reported that Nigeria’s Mines and Steel Development Minister Mr Olamilekan Adegbite announced that Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited will function to capacity before the end of President Muhammadu Buhari’s administration. He said the federal government had made effort to ensure that the Russian company that built the steel industry would come to Nigeria to conduct technical audit of the company. He said the Russian team would have been in Nigeria since 2020 for the technical audit but COVID-19 pandemic distorted the plan.

The agreement on how to revive the steel company was reached during a meeting between President Muhammadu Buhari and President Mr Vladimir Putin in Russia in 2019.The Russian government had nominated TPE, the original builder of Ajaokuta Steel Company, to conduct technical audit of the steel company to ascertain the level of work remaining to be completed on the steel company. A 60-man team from Russia would arrive in Nigeria to start technical audit of Ajaokuta steel.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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MMK & MegaFon Use IoT for Improving Raw Material Scheduling

A pilot project based on the Internet of Things has been launched in the mining and processing industry of PJSC Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. A positioning system on self unloading trolleys was introduced in the sinter charge preparation workshop TsPASh for automatic control of transportation, loading and storage of iron ore raw materials. Within the framework of the project, a hardware and software complex using Ultra WideBand wireless ultra-wideband data transmission technology was introduced on the TsPASH belt conveyor. The implemented solution allows determining with an accuracy of half a meter the location of self-unloading carts and the direction of their movement, and also optimizes the entire technological cycle. Automation of processes, online control of the movement of goods and elimination of errors due to the human factor increasese the accuracy of the composition of raw materials

The technology chosen by MegaFon, in addition to its accuracy, is distinguished by high noise immunity, which is extremely important in the conditions of work in the workshops of the plant. The introduction of a positioning system for self-unloading carts should solve such problems as increasing the accuracy of raw materials storage, improving the quality of the production process by reducing fluctuations in the chemical composition of the raw material, as well as reducing time costs and minimizing errors."

MegaFon's digital projects development director in the Urals Mr Evgeny Ivanov said “We carried out installation, commissioning and commissioning of a fragment of the self-unloading carts positioning system for pilot operation, covering several aisles of the technological gallery. The UWB technology we selected provided the required positioning accuracy, within half a meter. The transport mark, installed on the trolley, moves relative to the anchor systems available on the territory of the gallery, and special software calculates the coordinates of the mark. Then, graphic information about the location of the cart is sent to the dispatcher online and stored in a database with time intervals.”

After the completion of the pilot project at TsPASH, MegaFon and MMK plan to replicate it at other facilities of the company's mining and processing industry.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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Latin American Steel Industry Coninues to Recover in Jan-May 2021

Latin American Steel Association Alacero announced that crude steel production in May had a rise of 3.2% compared to April, accumulating between January and May an increase of 19.8% compared to the first five months of 2020. It should be noted that May of this year produced 48.2% more than May of last year. Consumption activities reflect the good performance of rolled production, which between January and May grew 24.8% compared to the same period in 2020 for a total of 23.2 million tonnes. In May, the production of rolled products increased 66.9% compared to May last year, reaching 4.96 million tonnes.

Accumulated steel consumption from January to April registered a growth of 27.9% compared to the same period in 2020, totaling 25.1 million tonnes, driven by a better economic performance of the countries in the region, and especially by consumer sectors such as infrastructure, civil construction, and manufacturing. In the month, steel consumption increased by 71.3% compared to April last year, reaching 6.7 million tonnes, a level higher than that observed in the same month of 2019.

From January to April, there was a 27.2% increase in total imports compared to the same period in 2020. Regarding intraregional imports, these represented 11% of total imports in April, above the 8.1% identified in the previous month. Thus, the Latin American domestic market registered growth above the 10.4% identified in the average of the first three months of the year.

In turn, intraregional exports represented 49.6% of the total exported by Latin America in April. This figure represents a growth of 7.4% compared to the previous month, a level higher than the average of 38.7% observed in the first quarter. Therefore, exports outside the region decreased and stood at 50.4%, in a movement of greater collaboration between Latin American markets. However, in the accumulated of the first four months, total exports were 13% lower than the same period last year.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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Vietnam's Steel Market Recovers in H1 of 2021

Vietnam Steel Association recently announced that Vietnam’s steel market in the first 6 months of 2021 showed positive signs of recovery. Steel production of all kinds reached 15.92 million tonnes, up 37% over the same period in 2020 while sales reached 14.06 million tonnes, up 35% over the same period in 2020 in which the export of steel of all kinds reached 3.42 million tonnes, up 84.4% compared to the first 6 months of 2020. On the oher hand, steel imports to Vietnam in the first 5 months of 2021 Vietnam were 5.97 million tonnes with up 8.43%. In the 5 months of 2021, the amount of steel imported from China is more than 3.12 million tonnes, accounting for 50% of total steel imports.

However, Vietnam’s steel market slowed down in June 2021. Production of steel reached 2.56 million tonnes, down by 12% over the previous month but up by 31% YoY. Sales of steel of all kinds reached 2.09 million tonnes, down 15% compared to May 2021, but up 19.2% YoY in which, steel exports of all kinds reached 0.62 million tonnes, down 1% compared to the previous month, and increased more than 2 times compared to the same period in June 2020.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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NLMK to Reduce Dust at Stoilensky Tailings Dam by 70%

NLMK Group’s Stoilensky Mining and Beneficiation Plant is currently implementing a project that will enable a dramatic reduction in dust formation at the tailings dam dry beaches where empty rock is stored after ore beneficiation. The new dust suppression system includes an adaptive water sprinkling infrastructure and an innovative reagent treatment technology that suppresses dust formation even in windy weather. The dust suppression system consists of a network of pipes and pumps for sprinkling water within a radius of 100 metres. As the tailings dam gets filled, the system can be quickly dismantled and assembled in another area. The beach sections that are removed from the sprinkler system get treated with a reagent, an organic glue that sticks the empty rock particles together. As a result, a thick crust forms on the surface and suppresses dust in windy weather.

In 2021, more than six kilometres of sprinkler systems will be launched and over 100 hectares of the tailings dam will be treated with the reagent. Investment in the project will total RUB 150 million.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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Australia Delays AD Duty Probe Results for Precision Pipes Again

Australia’s Anti-Dumping Commission has announced the fifth extension of time granted to issue the final report of the investigation into alleged dumping and subsidisation of precision pipe and tube steel imported from Vietnam, China, the Republic of Korea and Taiwan. The report is now due to be released on or before August 27, 2021.

The ADC on June 1 issued the Preliminary Affirmative Determination on the probe, saying there appear to be insufficient grounds for the publication of a dumping duty notice and a countervailing duty notice in respect of precision pipes and tubes exported from Vietnam. It found no evidence of significantly different prices for raw materials in thee countries nor official Government plans to control or otherwise influence Vietnam’s steel industry.

The goods subject to probe are electric resistance welded pipe and tube made of carbon steel, whether or not including alloys, comprising circular, rectangular and square hollow sections in metallic coated and non-metallic coated finishes. Metallic finish types for the goods include galvanised and aluminised. Non-metallic finishes include hot-rolled and cold-rolled. Sizes of the goods are, for circular products, those equal to or less than 21 millimetre in outside diameter. Also included are air heater tubes to Australian Standard 2556, up to and including 101.6 mm outside diameter. For rectangular and square products, those with a thickness of less than 1.6 mm, being a perimeter up to and including 260 mm. Included within the goods are end-configurations such as plain, square-faced and other (e.g. threaded, swaged and shouldered). The goods include all electric resistance welded pipe and tube made of steel meeting the above description of the goods (and inclusions), including whether the pipe or tube meets a specific structural standard or is used in structural applications. Oval and other shaped hollow sections which are not circular, rectangular or square are excluded from the goods.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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TMK Signs Pipe Service Contract with Udmurtneft

Russian Pipe Metallurgical Company TMK’s OOO ChTPZ Pipe Service has signed a three-year service contract with OAO Udmurtneft, operated by Rosneft and KNHK Sinopek, for the maintenance of tubing. Under the terms of the contract ChTPZ Pipe Service will repair and supply to Udmurtneft more than 170 thousand tubing pipes with a diameter of 60, 73 and 89 mm, which is about 50% of the region's market. The range of services under the contract includes internal and external cleaning of pipes from various deposits, cutting of new threads, as well as hydrotesting with pressure up to 700 atmospheres.

OOO ChTPZ Pipe Service is included in the management loop of TMK Neftegazservice, TMK's oilfield services division. The company offers to the fuel and energy complex the services of a comprehensive service of oil country tubular goods, including the manufacture of tubular products and couplings, threading, transportation, assembly and storage, as well as supervising and technical control. Since January 2021, ChTPZ. Pipe Service repaired more than 250 thousand tubing, as well as assembled and delivered more than 800 thousand tubing to the fields.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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SAPRO Inks Deal to Build Rail for Iron Ore Export from Congo

Journal De Brazza reported that Congolese SAPRO Mayoko and South African Thelo DB Proprietary Limited, a JV of German rail operator Deutsche Bahn and a South African investment company Thelo Ventures, have signed an agreement of more than CFA 600 billion (USD 1.1 billion) for the construction of a rail section of 412 km for the evacuation of iron in the south western Congo. In addition to the construction of the new 412 km rail section from Mayoko to the future Pointe-Noire mineral port, part of this funding will be used for the rehabilitation of the old 182 km rail section from Mayoko to the Autonomous Port of Pointe-Noire PAPN.

Separately, Sapro Group concluded USD 1.1 billion deal with German rail operator Deutsche Bahn and a South African investment company Thelo Ventures JV Thelo DB to build a railway between the Atlantic port of Pointe-Noire and the Mayoko iron ore mine. The plan is to build a 412km rail link to export around 12 million tonnes of iron ore a year. The ore will be mined in the Mayoko deposit, which is thought to contain about 580 million tonnes of the mineral.

Source - Strategic Research Institute
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Mondiale staalproductie groeit minder hard
In juni stijging van bijna 12 procent.

(ABM FN-Dow Jones) De mondiale staalproductie is in juni opnieuw gestegen maar minder hard dan in de maanden ervoor. Dit bleek vrijdag uit cijfers van brancheorganisatie World Steel Association.

In totaal vervaardigden de 64 staalproducerende landen in juni 167,9 miljoen ton staal, een stijging van 11,6 procent op jaarbasis. Dat was in mei nog bijna 17 procent en in april zelfs meer dan 23 procent.

In China, wereldwijd met afstand de grootste fabrikant van staal, steeg de productie met 1,5 procent tot 93,9 miljoen ton. In de VS was sprake van een forse stijging van ruim 44 procent tot 7,1 miljoen ton. Ook Japan produceerde ruim 44 procent meer staal dan in juni 2020.

Duitsland zag de productie met 38,2 procent stijgen. In India en Brazilië waren de stijgingen met respectievelijk 21 en 45 procent ook fors.

Door: ABM Financial News.

info@abmfn.nl

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